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Implementing reforms during the economic crisis
19,90 CHF *
zzgl. 3,50 CHF Versand

Seminar paper from the year 2013 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: Globalization, Political Economics, grade: 2,0, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, language: English, abstract: Despite of the fact that the market economy has demonstrated its superiority before the others types of economies it is still not protected from crises. Economic crises are usually connected with the end of business cycles but they can also take place by the negative state of economy or mistakes of governments. In any case crises have negative influence on the electoral support of governments because voters have to accept such negative economic phenomena as unemployment, inflation, bankruptcy of banks and companies. Voters are inclined to blame governments and political actors with such problems. The most popular form of response of governments to economic crises is the implication of appropriate economic reforms. Some reforms can have negative consequences for voters and therefore for the electoral support and restrict some essential options of the welfare state. Nevertheless the examples from the current crisis of the Euro zone as well as the examples from previous crises show that certain states implement reforms and therefore overcome crisis more successful than others. In this way, the problem of this term paper is the following one: why are some countries in the Euro zone are more successful in implementing reforms than others? In order to answer this question first of all the theoretical frames are represented. They include two theories which explain the decision of governments to undertake economic reforms as well as the behavior during the reforms' implementation. The empirical examples of Italy which went through the severe economic crisis before the joining the Euro zone in the 1990s and Ireland which suffered from the financial crisis of 2008 - 2009 as a member state of the Euro zone and then overcame it will show how and why some countries can be successful in implementation of risky reforms in practice.

Anbieter: Orell Fuessli CH
Stand: 22.10.2020
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Implementing reforms during the economic crisis
15,90 CHF *
ggf. zzgl. Versand

Seminar paper from the year 2013 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: Globalization, Political Economics, grade: 2,0, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, language: English, abstract: Despite of the fact that the market economy has demonstrated its superiority before the others types of economies it is still not protected from crises. Economic crises are usually connected with the end of business cycles but they can also take place by the negative state of economy or mistakes of governments. In any case crises have negative influence on the electoral support of governments because voters have to accept such negative economic phenomena as unemployment, inflation, bankruptcy of banks and companies. Voters are inclined to blame governments and political actors with such problems. The most popular form of response of governments to economic crises is the implication of appropriate economic reforms. Some reforms can have negative consequences for voters and therefore for the electoral support and restrict some essential options of the welfare state. Nevertheless the examples from the current crisis of the Euro zone as well as the examples from previous crises show that certain states implement reforms and therefore overcome crisis more successful than others. In this way, the problem of this term paper is the following one: why are some countries in the Euro zone are more successful in implementing reforms than others? In order to answer this question first of all the theoretical frames are represented. They include two theories which explain the decision of governments to undertake economic reforms as well as the behavior during the reforms' implementation. The empirical examples of Italy which went through the severe economic crisis before the joining the Euro zone in the 1990s and Ireland which suffered from the financial crisis of 2008 - 2009 as a member state of the Euro zone and then overcame it will show how and why some countries can be successful in implementation of risky reforms in practice.

Anbieter: Orell Fuessli CH
Stand: 22.10.2020
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Optimal Taxation in a Federal System of Governm...
10,30 € *
zzgl. 3,00 € Versand

Seminar paper from the year 2011 in the subject Economics - Finance, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel (Department of Economics), course: Seminar in Public Economics and Social Policy: Federalism and (De)Centralization, language: English, abstract: An implemented tax system causes distortions which leads to a minor overall welfare level compared to a system without taxes. This deviation in social welfare is often denoted by excess burden or dead weight loss (DWL) of taxation. So the traditional optimal taxation approach comprises the implementation of a tax system which minimizes the excess burden and hence the distortions caused by the levied taxes. Therefore, the policy maker has to anticipate possible behavioral adjustments of the market participants when choosing its optimal tax policy. Assuming the policy maker will do so all effects (i.e. distortions) caused by the tax system will be internalized which means that no fiscal externalities would arise from implementing the (optimal) tax system. However, the traditional optimal taxation approach abstracts from any intergovernmental relations as the existence of only one government and accordingly only one level with fiscal jurisdiction is assumed. The question here is whether and to what extent federal structures (i.e. multileveled government structures) affect the optimal tax policy decision.The first attempt to take into account the characteristics of a federal systemrelated to optimal tax policy goes back to Gordon (1983) who applied the methodologyof the traditional optimal taxation approach to fiscal federalism. Therein eachunit of government (i.e. the federal and usually several state governments) decidesindependently how much of public goods to provide and in particular which taxpolicy to use in funding the provided public goods. Hence, we now consider a decentralizedform of decision-making in which each unit of government chooses theoptimal tax policy in the best interest of its own residents. As a consequence of thissolely intrajurisdictional externalities are internalized analogous to the traditionaloptimization approach. Though, it isn't obvious whether this solution is also optimalin the sense of an inter jurisdictional point of view. Sobel (1997), Wrede (1999)and also Keen/Kotsogiannis (2002) stated that a common pool problem emergesgiven that subordinated governments (i.e. state governments) are allowed to levytaxes as well as the federal government. This means that taxation at multiple levelslead to a shared tax base which is the fiscal analogue to the common propertyresource. Due to this overlap in tax bases any separately considered optimal taxpolicy at a certain level may affect the optimality character of the ...

Anbieter: Thalia AT
Stand: 22.10.2020
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Implementing reforms during the economic crisis
13,40 € *
zzgl. 3,00 € Versand

Seminar paper from the year 2013 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: Globalization, Political Economics, grade: 2,0, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, language: English, abstract: Despite of the fact that the market economy has demonstrated its superiority before the others types of economies it is still not protected from crises. Economic crises are usually connected with the end of business cycles but they can also take place by the negative state of economy or mistakes of governments. In any case crises have negative influence on the electoral support of governments because voters have to accept such negative economic phenomena as unemployment, inflation, bankruptcy of banks and companies. Voters are inclined to blame governments and political actors with such problems. The most popular form of response of governments to economic crises is the implication of appropriate economic reforms. Some reforms can have negative consequences for voters and therefore for the electoral support and restrict some essential options of the welfare state. Nevertheless the examples from the current crisis of the Euro zone as well as the examples from previous crises show that certain states implement reforms and therefore overcome crisis more successful than others. In this way, the problem of this term paper is the following one: why are some countries in the Euro zone are more successful in implementing reforms than others? In order to answer this question first of all the theoretical frames are represented. They include two theories which explain the decision of governments to undertake economic reforms as well as the behavior during the reforms' implementation. The empirical examples of Italy which went through the severe economic crisis before the joining the Euro zone in the 1990s and Ireland which suffered from the financial crisis of 2008 - 2009 as a member state of the Euro zone and then overcame it will show how and why some countries can be successful in implementation of risky reforms in practice.

Anbieter: Thalia AT
Stand: 22.10.2020
Zum Angebot
Implementing reforms during the economic crisis
12,99 € *
ggf. zzgl. Versand

Seminar paper from the year 2013 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: Globalization, Political Economics, grade: 2,0, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, language: English, abstract: Despite of the fact that the market economy has demonstrated its superiority before the others types of economies it is still not protected from crises. Economic crises are usually connected with the end of business cycles but they can also take place by the negative state of economy or mistakes of governments. In any case crises have negative influence on the electoral support of governments because voters have to accept such negative economic phenomena as unemployment, inflation, bankruptcy of banks and companies. Voters are inclined to blame governments and political actors with such problems. The most popular form of response of governments to economic crises is the implication of appropriate economic reforms. Some reforms can have negative consequences for voters and therefore for the electoral support and restrict some essential options of the welfare state. Nevertheless the examples from the current crisis of the Euro zone as well as the examples from previous crises show that certain states implement reforms and therefore overcome crisis more successful than others. In this way, the problem of this term paper is the following one: why are some countries in the Euro zone are more successful in implementing reforms than others? In order to answer this question first of all the theoretical frames are represented. They include two theories which explain the decision of governments to undertake economic reforms as well as the behavior during the reforms' implementation. The empirical examples of Italy which went through the severe economic crisis before the joining the Euro zone in the 1990s and Ireland which suffered from the financial crisis of 2008 - 2009 as a member state of the Euro zone and then overcame it will show how and why some countries can be successful in implementation of risky reforms in practice.

Anbieter: Thalia AT
Stand: 22.10.2020
Zum Angebot