Past Landscapes presents theoretical and practical attempts of scholars and scientists, who were and are active within the Kiel Graduate School "Human Development in Landscapes" (GSHDL), in order to disentangle a wide scope of research efforts on past landscapes. Landscapes are understood as products of human-environmental interaction. At the same time, they are arenas, in which societal and cultural activities as well as receptions of environments and human developments take place. Thus, environmental processes are interwoven into human constraints and advances.This book presents theories, concepts, approaches and case studies dealing with human development in landscapes. On the one hand, it becomes evident that only an interdisciplinary approach can cover the manifold aspects of the topic. On the other hand, this also implies that the very different approaches cannot be reduced to a simplistic uniform definition of landscape. This shortcoming proves nevertheless to be an important strength. The umbrella term 'landscape' proves to be highly stimulating for a large variety of different approaches.The first part of our book deals with a number of theories and concepts, the second part is concerned with approaches to landscapes, whereas the third part introduces case studies for human development in landscapes. As intended by the GSHDL, the reader might follow our approach to delve into the multi-faceted theories, concepts and practices on past landscapes: from events, processes and structures in environmental and produced spaces to theories, concepts and practices concerning past societies.ContentsPrefacePast Landscapes: The Dynamics of Interaction between Society, Environment, and CultureAnnette Haug, Lutz Käppel, and Johannes MüllerIntroductionFrom Theories, Concepts and Practices on Human Development in LandscapesAnnette Haug and Johannes MüllerLandscape and the GSHDL 2007-2017: Ten Years of ResearchJohannes MüllerI: Past Landscapes - Theories and ConceptsThe Disentanglement of Landscapes: Remarks on Concepts of Socio-Environmental Research and Landscape ArchaeologyJohannes MüllerOn Melting Grounds: Theories of the LandscapeAntonia DavidovicRitual and Landscape: Theoretical ConsiderationsV.P.J. Arponen and Artur RibeiroII: Past Landscapes - Concepts and PracticesPutting Things into Practice: Pragmatic Theory and the Exploration of Monumental LandscapesMartin Furholt, Martin Hinz and Doris MischkaWho Is In Charge Here? - Material Culture, Landscapes and SymmetryChristian Horn and Gustav WollentzUrban Landscapes and Urban Networks - Some Thoughts on the Process of Writing within the Mediaeval Urbanization of Central EuropeGerhard Fouquet and Gabriel ZeilingerVisual Concepts of Human Surroundings: The Case of the Early Greek Polis (10th-7th century BC)Annette HaugThe Cultural Significance of PlantsWiebke KirleisIII: Past Landscapes - Concepts, Space and HistoryMid-Holocene Environment and Human Interaction in Northern Central EuropeMara WeineltFrom Hunting to Herding? Aspects of the Social and Animal Landscape during the Southern Scandinavian NeolithicMartin HinzBorders: Developments of Society and Landscape during the Bronze Age and the Iron Age - Face Urns as a Case StudyJutta KneiselThe Iron Age in Southwestern GermanyOliver NakoinzThe 'Iranian' Period in the Near East: A Landscape Studies ApproachJosef WiesehöferThe Bronze Age in the East - The Hittites and Their EnvironmentWalter DörflerNature and Perception of a Greek Landscape: StymphalosIngmar UnkelScenes and Actors of Historical Crises between Generalizing Synthesis Formation and Postmodern FragmentationUlrich Müller and Donat Wehner
Ole Martin extends well-established techniques for the analysis of high-frequency data based on regular observations to the more general setting of asynchronous and irregular observations. Such methods are much needed in practice as real data usually comes in irregular form. In the theoretical part he develops laws of large numbers and central limit theorems as well as a new bootstrap procedure to assess asymptotic laws. The author then applies the theoretical results to estimate the quadratic covariation and to construct tests for the presence of common jumps. The simulation results show that in finite samples his methods despite the much more complex setting perform comparably well as methods based on regular data. About the Author:Dr. Ole Martin completed his PhD at the Kiel University (CAU), Germany. His research focuses on high-frequency statistics for semimartingales with the aim to develop methods based on irregularly observed data.
C. F. GauS in a letter from Dec. 26, 1823 to Gerling: 3c~ empfe~le 3~nen biegen IDlobu9 aur 9tac~a~mung. ec~werlic~ werben eie ie wieber bi reet eliminiren, wenigftens nic~t, wenn eie me~r als 2 Unbefannte ~aben. :Da9 inbirecte 93erfa~ren 109st sic~ ~alb im ec~lafe ausfii~ren, ober man fann wo~renb be9gelben an anbere :Dinge benfen. [CO F. GauS: Werke vol. 9, Gottingen, p. 280, 1903] What difference exists between solving large and small systems of equations? The standard methods well-known to any student oflinear algebra are appli cable to all systems, whether large or small. The necessary amount of work, however, increases dramatically with the size, so one has to search for algo rithms that most efficiently and accurately solve systems of 1000, 10,000, or even one million equations. The choice of algorithms depends on the special properties the matrices in practice have. An important class of large systems arises from the discretisation of partial differential equations. In this case, the matrices are sparse (i. e. , they contain mostly zeros) and well-suited to iterative algorithms. Because of the background in partial differential equa tions, this book is closely connected with the author's Theory and Numerical Treatment of Elliptic Differential Equations, whose English translation has also been published by Springer-Verlag. This book grew out of a series of lectures given by the author at the Christian-Albrecht University of Kiel to students of mathematics.
Looking at the music of present-day Tanzania opens a broad range of perspectives on a multitude of forms of expressions that require a particularly large pluralism of methods. As cooperation und locally added value are no longer blocked out of international musical and cultural activities, the question must be raised how a contemporary musicology may be shaped under these new pretexts. The papers in this volume are vivid proof that also social, historic, commercial, political and other connotations are of interest. Mambo Moto Moto means something like "hot stuff"- a description that is certainly not amiss when talking about the traditional and contemporary music of Tanzania.The ten contributions deal with musical culture and practise in Tanzania, from the vocal polyphony of the Wagogo women (Gerhard Kubik, Philip Küppers & Kedmon Mapana) to traditional and religious music on Zanzibar and along the Swahili coast (Hildegard Kiel, Aïsha Othman), from urban trends (Kelly Askew, Werner Graebner) to the music of the quartet Wamwiduka as an example for transcultural musical processes (Tiago de Oliveira Pinto), and from questions of cultural education (Mitchel Strumpf, Kedmon Mapana) to practical aspects of preserving the treasures of Radio Tanzania (David Tinning). These deeply interesting texts offer a view on music in Tanzania that goes far beyond conventional volumes in musicology as it includes research, inventory, didactic aspects and presentations of projects in equal measure.A 80-minute DVD contains the film With the Drums in their Luggage about the journey of the Ufunuo Muheme Group from their home village in Central Tanzania to Rudolstadt and Weimar in Germany in July 2014. The disc also includes live footage from the bands Dogo Dogo Stars, Jagwa Music, Segere Original, and Wamwiduka.
The enlarged new edition of this textbook provides a comprehensive introduction to the basic processes in plasmas and demonstrates that the same fundamental concepts describe cold gas-discharge plasmas, space plasmas, and hot fusion plasmas. Starting from particle drifts in magnetic fields, the principles of magnetic confinement fusion are explained and compared with laser fusion. Collective processes are discussed in terms of plasma waves and instabilities. The concepts of plasma description by magnetohydrodynamics, kinetic theory, and particle simulation are stepwise introduced. Space charge effects in sheath regions, double layers and plasma diodes are given the necessary attention. The novel fundamental mechanisms of dusty plasmas are explored and integrated into the framework of conventional plasmas. The book concludes with a concise description of modern plasma discharges.Written by an internationally renowned researcher in experimental plasma physics, the text keeps the mathematical apparatus simple and emphasizes the underlying concepts. The guidelines of plasma physics are illustrated by a host of practical examples, preferentially from plasma diagnostics. There, Langmuir probe methods, laser interferometry, ionospheric sounding, Faraday rotation, and diagnostics of dusty plasmas are discussed. Though primarily addressing students in plasma physics, the book is easily accessible for researchers in neighboring disciplines, such as space science, astrophysics, material science, applied physics, and electrical engineering.This second edition has been thoroughly revised and contains substantially enlarged chapters on plasma diagnostics, dusty plasmas and plasma discharges. Probe techniques have been rearranged into basic theory and a host of practical examples for probe techniques in dc, rf, and space plasmas. New topics in dusty plasmas, such as plasma crystals, Yukawa balls, phase transitions and attractive forces have been adopted. The chapter on plasma discharges now contains a new section on conventional and high-power impulse magnetron sputtering. The recently discovered electrical asymmetry effect in capacitive rf-discharges is described.The text is based on an introductory course to plasma physics and advanced courses in plasma diagnostics, dusty plasmas, and plasma waves, which the author has taught at Kiel University for three decades. The pedagogical approach combines detailed explanations, a large number of illustrative figures, short summaries of the basics at the end of each chapter, and a selection of problems with detailed solutions.
Climate is a paradigm of a complex system. Analysing climate data is an exciting challenge, which is increased by non-normal distributional shape, serial dependence, uneven spacing and timescale uncertainties. This book presents bootstrap resampling as a computing-intensive method able to meet the challenge. It shows the bootstrap to perform reliably in the most important statistical estimation techniques: regression, spectral analysis, extreme values and correlation.This book is written for climatologists and applied statisticians. It explains step by step the bootstrap algorithms (including novel adaptions) and methods for confidence interval construction. It tests the accuracy of the algorithms by means of Monte Carlo experiments. It analyses a large array of climate time series, giving a detailed account on the data and the associated climatological questions. This makes the book self-contained for graduate students and researchers. Climate is a paradigm of a complex system. Analysing climate data is an excitingchallenge, which is increased by non-normal distributional shape, serial dependence,uneven spacing and timescale uncertainties. This book presents bootstrapresampling as a computing-intensive method able to meet the challenge. It showsthe bootstrap to perform reliably in the most important statistical estimationtechniques: regression, spectral analysis, extreme values and correlation.This book is written for climatologists and applied statisticians. It explains stepby step the bootstrap algorithms (including novel adaptions) and methods forconfidence interval construction. It tests the accuracy of the algorithms by meansof Monte Carlo experiments. It analyses a large array of climate time series,giving a detailed account on the data and the associated climatological questions.This makes the book self-contained for graduate students and researchers.Manfred Mudelsee received his diploma in Physics from the University of Heidelberg and his doctoral degree in Geology from the University of Kiel. He was then postdoc in Statisticsat the University of Kent at Canterbury, research scientist in Meteorology at the University of Leipzig and visiting scholar in Earth Sciences at Boston University, currently he does climate research at the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven. His science focuses on climate extremes, time series analysis and mathematical simulation methods. He has authored over 50 peer-reviewed articles. In his 2003 Nature paper, Mudelsee introduced the bootstrap method to flood risk analysis. In 2005, he founded the company Climate Risk Analysis.
In the second edition of this classic monograph, complete with four new chapters and updated references, readers will now have access to content describing and analysing classical and modern methods with emphasis on the algebraic structure of linear iteration, which is usually ignored in other literature. The necessary amount of work increases dramatically with the size of systems, so one has to search for algorithms that most efficiently and accurately solve systems of, e.g., several million equations. The choice of algorithms depends on the special properties the matrices in practice have. An important class of large systems arises from the discretization of partial differential equations. In this case, the matrices are sparse (i.e., they contain mostly zeroes) and well-suited to iterative algorithms. The first edition of this book grew out of a series of lectures given by the author at the Christian-Albrecht University of Kiel to students of mathematics. The second edition includes quite novel approaches.
Seminar paper from the year 2012 in the subject Geography / Earth Science - Economic Geography, grade: 1,0, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel (Geographisches Institut), language: English, abstract: The focus of this research paper will be on transnational companies (TNCs), which are not just doing business across borders, but rather have the individual characteristic of direct production and to a large extent also direct business activity in a foreign country. (Gillies: 2012) What strategies TNCs choose in order to pursue their target of directness will be demonstrated in this paper.
Bachelor Thesis from the year 2005 in the subject Business economics - Supply, Production, Logistics, grade: 1,7, Kiel University of Applied Sciences, 89 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: The matter of China Sourcing is at present being given little or medium-level priority by many companies. This however is not consistent with the potential which this matter offers with reference to procurement costs and consequently one's own competitive position. In the near future China will advance to become the procurement market par excellence. Today, it already has a large supply base, which in the next few years will lead to China developing into one of the most aggressive competitors in the world. This will lead to an increase in procurement from China. However, it is misplaced to rush into the 'adventure' of procurement in China. Thorough preparation is necessary to be successful in the Chinese market. Procurement in China does not only offer opportunities but it is afflicted by risks and problems. The focus of this book is directed towards 5 important problem areas: a lack of market transparency, difficulty in establishing contacts, underdeveloped logistics infrastructure, a lack of product quality, unusual negotiating strategies. The reader is made sensitive to these problem areas. At the same time, it provides practical advice to overcome these problems and gives purchasers useful information and hints in practical business situations. This guide is aimed at purchasing managers in production companies who have not yet had experience of dealing with or in China and who would like to start.